Purusottama Masa 2010 (Adhika Masam, Adhik Masa, Adika Masa, Adhik masam) is from March 30, 2010 to April 28, 2010 as per North Indian Calendar. Purusottama Masa is from April 15, 2010 to May 14, 2010 in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, This year, this extra month is also known as Adhik Vaishak Maas or Adhik Vaishak Mahina. Since Vaishak is for Krishna or Vishnu, adhika month in 2010 is very auspicious. In 2010 there are thirteen months in Vedic luni-solar calendar including Adhik Vaishak Maas. For solar calendar as followed in Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Orissa and Tamil Nadu, there is no Adhika Masam.
The instant at which Sun transits from one Rashi to the next is called a Sankramana. A chandramana masa in which no sankramana occurs is known as Adhika Masa. As per Suryasiddhanta,
1 Lunar year = 29.5305 X 12 = 354.366 days
1 Solar year = 365.2587 days.
To synchronize Lunar year (Chandramana Varsha) with solar year (Soura Varsha), one lunation has to be added after every three years. Vedic sstronomers call this intercalary lunation as adhika month, and add it to the lunar year. Every 33rd chandramana masa is an Adhika masa but due to speed variations of Sun and Moon, Adhika Masa occurs anywhere between 28th and 36th masas.The masa is also referred as Purushotthama masa.
Since Rakshasas by name Nairuthas dominate in the Adhika masa and destroy the phalas of all Kamya karmas, activities prohibited by traditional scriptures prohibit in an Adhika masa are Agnyadheya, Devatha Prathishte, Yajna, Vratas, Upakarma, Vrushothsava, Choodakarma (First haircut), Upanayana, Vivaha, Vasthu devatha pooja, Gruha pravesha, Yathrothsava, Wearing of new ornaments and Mahadanas. Thulapurushadana, Hiranyagarbhadana, Brahmandadana, Kalpapadapada, Gosahasradana are some of the sixteen mahadanas. Yathrothsava: The ban on yathra is only for those who are going for the first time. Here yathra means those who visit pilgrim centres for darshana and Shraddha.
Many sacred activities to be performed during Purusottama month are prescribed in Vedic Literature. These include:
Vrathas (Fasting) Danas (Charity) in Adhika Masa
Masa Snana: Snana during Arunodaya (One and a half hour period before Sunrise) on all days of the masa in rivers / sarovaras / tanks / wells etc.
Ayachitha Vratha: Being content with what you have and not ask anybody for anything.
Akhanda Deepa: One lamp should glow continuously without a break during the entire masa.
Deepa Seva: Lighting of 33 lamps, 108 lamps, 1008 lamps on all days / special days / one day or any combination.
Dharana Parana Vratha: Fifteen cycles of One complete day fasting(dharana) followed by Parana on the next day.
Vishnu Panchaka Vratha: Five fasts during the masa on – Shravana Nakshatra day, Two Ekadashis, Pournami and Amavasya
Naktha Bhojana / Eka Bhuktha: Complete fasting during the day and just One meal at night time.
Thamboola Dana: On all days of the masa to brahmin couples.
Bagina dana: Women should give away baginas to at least 33 mutthaides.
Apoopa Dana: Apoopas prepared out of Rice, Jaggery and Ghee. At least 33 apoopas in a bronze vessel to be given away. Ghee in another vessel also to be given away. This is said to bestow Vishesha Phala.
Phala Dana: Minimum of 33 plantains or mangoes or Jack fruit lozenges.
Those who cannot give on all days of the masa should try and give on the special days: Shukla Dwadashi, Pournima, Krishna Ashtami, Navami, Dwadashi, Chathurdashi and Amavasya.
Nithya Sandhyavandana, Devatha Pooja, Vaishwadeva, Pumsavana, Seemantha, Jathakarma, Shanthis associated with it, Masika Shraddha, Sapindeekarana, Varshika Shraddha (for those who have passed away during an Adhika masa), Dana & Japa on Grahana day, Chathurmasya vratha (if the Adhika masa happens to be one of the Chathurmasas), Japas / Archanas etc as Pariharas for illnesses, Japas / Parayanas etc for getting rain, and other routine activities.
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